A Comprehensive guide to Rust Programming Language for Smart Contracts Development | Web3

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Introduction to Rust

The Rust programming language is fast, memory-efficient and statically typed. As with most other languages, Rust was launched to address and bridge some significant gaps within coding and development. For instance, it is common for developers to face memory errors in languages like C++, which can multiply into problems like miscalculations, missing allocations, malfunctions, unresponsiveness, and spontaneous restarts, to name a few. Rust specifically addresses the issues of memory errors and concurrent programming.

Moreover, it is an ahead-of-time compiled language. This means that if User A compiles a code and gives the executable to User B, User B does not necessarily need to have Rust installed to run the program.

Rustaceans unite for safety.
Rustaceans unite for safety. Source: Github

Today, Rust is considered to be a good alternative to old and big-shot languages like C++ and Java in different capacities. Many web2 and web3 developers are opting for it as their primary language for coding. In fact, many have switched to Rust despite having languages like Java as their first programming language.

Origins of the Rust programming language

Designed by Graydon Hoare, the conceptualization of the Rust programming language started in 2006. Not many know but Rust was named after the rust fungi which happen to be a specialized plant pathogens with several unique features. 

Hoare was working at Mozilla Foundation while he was developing this fungi-inspired programming language. He worked on it for quite some time and in 2010, Rust officially became a Mozilla project. Five years later, in 2015, Rust 1.0 got launched, and Mozilla became its legal and financial sponsor.

In 2021, the formation of Rust Foundation was announced, and soon after Rust management shifted to the foundation and the rest is history.

What is Rust used for?

Rust was first majorly used for performance enhancement, security strengthening, and memory management. Later on, it started being used to write smart contracts, build decentralized applications, and mint tokens.

Developers also use Rust so that they can ensure memory safety and thread safety and eliminate as many bugs as they can while compilation. And Rust’s rich “type” system also

comes in handy. The programming language is said to have a diverse, and enhanced type system that allows users or developers to flexibly describe their types and determine how the objects associated with these types can interact.

What makes Rust well-suited for blockchain development?

Rust has definitely gained quite some traction in recent times. It has grown popular, especially in the blockchain industry. The primary aim or goal of any programming language is to serve its programmers to the core and Rust knows this very well.

rust programming language
Source: Metaschool

1. Easy to learn and write code

Rust is comparatively simpler and less complex to write code on. This is not really the case with some popular languages that are used in blockchain development. For example, messing around with threads on languages like C++ while writing code can be quite difficult. And if you go installing dependencies on C++, be ready for nightmares. Rust addresses these problems within the language itself.

From its vast libraries and multi-purpose frameworks to its super useful tools, Rust provides a unified ecosystem where you can go and get all the information you need about the language. This is essentially due to Rust being properly and carefully documented. Thus, coding is made ridiculously easy on Rust. No doubt it remains the most admired language.

2. Has a robust memory management system

The second reason which makes Rust a well-suited language for blockchain development is its memory management. Memory management happens to be a key challenge in developing complex systems like that of blockchain. Rust provides safety to blockchain memory without garbage collection.
Garbage collection (GC) is a memory recovery feature that is built into programming languages such as C++ and Java. While it is a feature not without benefits, it has some drawbacks, too. For example, in languages like Java, GC can lead to runtime overhead, resulting in problems for large-scale projects such as coding a blockchain. Thus, Rust does not support garbage collection.

3. It’s also quite fast

While C++ and Rust are strong competitors C++ tends to be a tad bit faster than Rust. However, Rust’s memory management system comes in handy here. It makes the execution of codes an extremely easy and stress-free process. Rust came a little late so it really observed the challenges faced by developers while coding in languages like C++.

Additionally, Rust has a large number of add-ons that adds to the overall speed of the language. Be it the serialization of structures or asynchronous programming, Rust has got libraries, tools, and frameworks to do the needful.

Blockchain projects built with Rust

When it comes to projects using Rust, there are several in the web3 space. Let’s take a quick look.

1. Solana

Solana, a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain, has been using Rust to write smart contracts. It’s a strong competitor to Ethereum and home to diverse blockchain-based web3 applications. From Solana dApps to Solana smart contracts to Solana NFTs, Rust has been efficiently leveraged to code these diverse web3 applications on the Solana blockchain.

🔍 Explore: Who is Anatoly Yakovenko? Founder of Solana Blockchain

2. Near Protocol

Rust is used to build tools for developing and interacting with Near Protocol. These tools include wallets, compilers, and explorers. Additionally, Rust is used to create and write dApps and smart contracts as well, respectively.

3. Polkadot

Polkadot, a famous blockchain, is built upon a blockchain framework called Substrate. The Substrate framework is coded with the Rust programming language and allows to create blockchains like Polkadot. This shows that Polkadot would probably not exist without Rust. Rust also helps the blockchain in implementing its core runtime which is responsible for executing smart contracts. Polkadot’s interoperability vision consists of parachains that run parallel to its blockchain. Rust is greatly used when it comes to the development of parachains.

4. Acala Network

Acala is a blockchain network that uses the Rust programming language in many different ways. Some of the constituents of Acala’s infrastructure were designed and coded with Rust. These include the consensus engine, wallet, and run-time. Rust is a recommended language for the development of parachains and used to write smart contracts on the network.

5. Comit

A cross-blockchain network that facilitates trustless cross-blockchain applications like Bitcoin, Solana, etc. While cross-blockchain communication is not a new thing, Comit leverages the Rust programming language to do the needful. Comit has a GitHub repository with a bunch of projects, all built using Rust.

6. Exonum

An open-source, enterprise-grade blockchain framework that helps businesses, governments, and professional organizations securely bring blockchain projects to life. Exonum majorly employs Rust for its projects. From the look of it, Exonum seems to be quite inspired by Hyperledger Fabric. It also has a well-curated blockchain repository on GitHub.

7. Bonfida

Another open-source project that we have is Bonfida. It is a free token vesting program that is made completely on Rust. It is also built for the Solana blockchain. Bonfida helps you in determining, say, how many tokens are to be released at one time. It makes a decent vesting tool powered by Rust. Bonfida also has a list of projects and programs on Github that you can check out.

8. Fe

Did you know that there is a replacement for Solidity called Fe? You can use this language to write smart contracts on Ethereum. What is mind-boggling is that Fe is created on Rust and it serves as an alternative to Solidity. That’s too many languages. It also offers precise gas estimations along with other cool features. Do you think you would want to use Fe to develop smart contracts and dApps? You can also check out their GitHub.

9. Astar

Lastly, there is Astar, which is the future of smart contracts for multichain blockchains. What this means is that you can write smart contracts and by using Astar, you can deploy it to multiple blockchains. Astar proudly calls itself the dApp hub for future blockchains. Astar also has a GitHub repository that you can check out.

Common programming concepts in Rust

Get your pens out, it’s time to take notes!

Source: Evan Miller

1. Variables and mutability

Variables on Rust are completely immutable. There have been cases when data have been tried to be changed or modified. However, Rust ensures that you can rest assured about your variables remaining immutable. If you are a beginner and you are not too sure about variables, you have the option to turn your immutable variables into mutable ones.

2. Data types

Each value that you see on Rust belongs to a certain data type. This helps Rust to determine which value is specified to which data type. There are two major data types that have sub-types and they are as follows:

a. Scalar

The scalar data type represents all the singular values within Rust. There are four primary sub-type of the scalar data type and they are as follows:

integer: a number with no fractions. For example, 5 is an integer but 5.5 is not an integer.

floating-point: opposite of integers, floating-point numbers are numbers that have a fractional component to them and these are the numbers with decimal points. For example, 5.5 is a floating-point number but 5 is not.

booleans: the boolean type has only two values. It can either be true or false. In Rust, this type of data is specified as a bool.numeric: numeric operations include the basic DMAS rules which include the addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication of numbers.

b. Characters

The char type is the most primitive alphabetic type.

c. Compound/collections

Compound data types, as the name goes, group multiple values into one type. There are two primitive compound types – tuple and array.

tuple: a tuple is a general way of grouping together several values with various types, into one compound type. Tuple happens to have a fixed length. Once you have declared a tuple size, it can’t grow or shrink further. Tuple is created by writing a comma-separated list of values inside parentheses.

array: another way to achieve a compound type with respect to your data is through an array. In an array, you have a homogenous group of data types, unlike a tuple in which you have a heterogeneous group of data types.

3. Functions

Functions in Rust are yet another concept. They are used to encapsulate a block of code that happens to perform a specific task. They can have input parameters and return values. Rust functions have a clear signature, including the return type, and can be called from other parts of the code. They play a fundamental role in structuring and organizing Rust programs.


This is an interesting concept in Rust. Comments in Rust allow you to add explanatory or descriptive text to your code that is ignored by the compiler. Rust supports two types of comments: single-line comments, which are distinguished by / /, and multi-line comments, enclosed between /* and */. Comments are useful for documenting your code, providing context, and making it more understandable to other developers or to yourself when revisiting the code in the future.

5. Control flow and loops

Rust coding is the executing of statements and expressions. Control flow in Rust determines the order in which these statements and expressions are executed. These expressions and statements are specified by if and else statements or match expressions.

a. Conditions

In Rust, conditions are typically expressed using if and else statements or match expressions. They allow you to make decisions and execute different blocks of code based on whether a condition evaluates to true or false.

b. Loops

The loop keyword tells Rust to execute a block of code over and over again until you stop it. Thus, unbound looping is a feature of Rust, unlike Clarity. Moreover, if you have commanded a certain condition, looping will continue until that condition is met.

🔮 Explore more: Full Guide to Clarity | Smart Contract Programming Language

6. Ownership and borrowing

Ownership in Rust enables it to make memory safety guarantees without the need for a garbage collector or GC. GCs are often used in languages like Java but Rust does not entertain such a feature. Ownership basically is a set of rules that govern how a program manages memory.

As far as borrowing is concerned, it is a mechanism that allows multiple references to access and uses a value without transferring ownership. It enables safe and efficient resource sharing. Borrowing is governed by strict ownership and borrowing rules enforced by the Rust compiler to prevent common issues like data races and dangling references.

7. Structs

Structs, short for structures, are user-defined data types that allow you to group related data together. They share similarities to classes in object-oriented programming and provide a way to define custom data structures.

8. enums

Enums, short for enumerations, are data types that allow you to define a type by enumerating its possible values. Enums are useful when you have a fixed set of values that a variable can take. Values in enums are called variants. They can either be associated with a data type or be empty.

9. Methods

Methods in Rust are functions that are defined within the context of a struct, an enum, or a trait implementation. They’re associated with a particular type and can access the data of that type. Moreover, they can also help you define behavior specific to the type.

10. Error handling

In Rust, error handling is achieved using the Result type and the panic! macro. The Result type represents the result of an operation that can either be successful (Ok) or contain an error (Err). It allows you to handle and propagate errors in a structured manner.

11. Tests

In Rust, Tests allow you to write tests for your code to ensure the code behaves as it is expected to. There is a specific attribute that is written as #[test] and they are capable of asserting certain conditions which they do using the assert! attribute.

Rust tools, libraries, and frameworks for development

1. Tools

The Rust programming language uses some industry-grade tools which help developers tremendously and they greatly add to one’s overall efficiency. These tools are as follows:

a. Rustfmt

This particular code is handy as it automatically formats your code on Rust, making it easier to read, write and maintain. In fact, the Rustfmt tool also reformats your code into community code style. For context, a community code style is a set of conventions and guidelines followed by the Rust community when writing code.

Source: rust-lang/Github

b. Clippy

Clippy is an interesting and useful Rust tool that developers can use. It helps catch common mistakes within a Rust code. There are three distinct ways to use Clippy in your code.

Simply add Clippy to the entirety of your code. There is always a .bazelrc file which is actually your workspace file. You can simply add the following to your file and it will apply to the code as a whole, as in to all Rust targets:

build –aspects=@rules_rust//rust:defs.bzl%rust_clippy_aspect

build –output_groups=+clippy_checks

Execute the Clippy checker on a specific target by using the rust clippy(name, deps) command where name indicates a unique name for the target and deps signifies target/s to run Clippy on.Finally, one can execute the Clippy checker on specified targets by using this command rust_clippy_aspect(name)

c. Cargo Doc

Cargo is a whole package manager for Rust. It is essentially a build tool with multiple commands. Cargo is majorly focused on dependency resolution and ensuring a reputable build. One of its commands is Cargo Doc. Cargo Doc helps build a package’s documentation. Documentation in coding is of immense importance because if you can’t read it, you can’t write it. The output of Cargo Doc is in rustdoc’s usual format.

2. Libraries

Coding libraries happen to increase a developer’s overall efficiency. Libraries usually have pre-written, reusable, tried and tested chunks of code that reduce your work and help you simultaneously. Here are the top 3 Rust libraries:

a. Hyper

Handling and making HTTP requests in Rust is a common phenomenon and an action that is performed more than once. This also includes parsing the results. Hyper, as a library, makes handling HTTP requests an easy process for developers.

b. Tokio

Tokio is an event-driven, non-blocking I/O library for writing asynchronous applications. It has different features such as a task scheduler, asynchronous sockets, etc.

Source: blog

c. Iced

Iced is a valuable cross-platform GUI library used by developers who code in Rust. It is mainly focused on simplicity and type safety. Additionally, it has features like a responsive layout, built-in widgets like scrollables, text inputs, etc.

3. Frameworks

In coding frameworks are crucial. They provide assistance in the development process. Here are some of Rust’s popular frameworks.

a. Serde

A lightweight and general purpose that deals with serialization and deserialization of Rust data structs in an efficient fashion.

b. Actix

Actix is a more specific framework. It is a high-performance, actor-based web framework that isolates requests and improves the scalability and performance of web applications.

c. Rocket

As mentioned at the beginning of this guide, Rust has a rich type system. Rocket, as a framework, utilizes Rust’s type system to provide a simple and secure development experience. It also has a set of macros (a code that generates a code) and abstractions to simplify web development.

How to write a basic smart contract in Rust

  1. Create a new Rust project.

2. Add the ink_lang crate to your project.

3. Create a file in your project.

4. Write the following code in the file:

use ink_lang as ink;
mod counter {
    pub struct Counter {
        count: u32,
    impl Counter {
        pub fn new() -> Self {
            Self { count: 0 }
        pub fn increment(&mut self) {
            self .count += 1;

5. Compile your project using the cargo build command.

6. Deploy your contract to a blockchain network.

The future of Rust as a programming language

In core software, Rust is used pretty much everywhere. Be it operating systems, drivers, and server infrastructure, Rust always has an answer and a way. Gradually, it has made its place in the blockchain space as well.

Several agree it is an upward trajectory for Rust from here because of its speed (which is almost as much as that of C++) and increased safety. To add, before Rust, languages like Java, C++, etc. were some of the fastest languages. Rust’s key selling point became its safety along with speed.

Due to this and more reasons an industry shift is being seen in which developers will start adapting to Rust. Thus, the future of Rust as a programming language looks bright for now. Only time will tell if that is going to stand true.


What kind of language is Rust?

Rust is a, high-level, statically-typed programming language.

What are the top 5 blockchains that use Rust?

The top 5 blockchains that use Rust are

1. Polkadot

2. Elrond

3. Solana

4. Near Protocol

5. Hyperledger Sawtooth

Is Rust better than C++?

There is no one answer to this question. Rust and C++ are both great languages in their own capacity. If Rust has better framework support then C++ has a more rich library. So, it depends on what you are looking for. And if a language fulfills that, it is definitely a better language.

Which is faster, Python or Rust?

Rust is more memory efficient which makes it faster than Python.

Are Rust developers in demand?

Since Rust has been gaining popularity in the blockchain space, Rust developers have been in great demand.

What is the salary for Rust developers in 2023?

The average salary of a Rust developer in 2023 is 127k USD per annum. The base salary is between $60k USD (minimum) and $250k USD (maximum).


Hire Web3 Developers: Salary, Skills and More

The blockchain ecosystem has seen unprecedented growth with many companies now looking to hire Web3 developers with experience in cryptocurrency.

The web is undergoing dramatic changes. Of the latest changes is Web3, a new version of the internet, which is quickly expanding in size and popularity.

As it’s still a new idea, finding Web3 engineers is a tedious task. It’s mostly cryptocurrency and blockchain enthusiast developers who are mastering this new form of the web, which is destined to change the internet in ways we have yet to understand.

Before we talk about how to hire Web3 developers, let’s talk about Web3 itself.

What is Web3?

Web3, unlike its predecessors, Web 1.0 and Web 2.0, is based on peer-to-peer (P2P) decentralized networks, such as blockchain.

Blockchain is a hallmark building block of cryptocurrency, and Web3 is a product of both. Web3 developers create apps that aren’t limited to a single cloud server but are instead distributed on a blockchain or decentralized P2P network that isn’t controlled by a central authority.

In simpler words, Web3 is similar to how most cryptocurrencies work based on the blueprint of Bitcoin.

How does this differ from the existing Web 2.0? While Web 2.0 is user-centric (most of the content is user-generated), Web3 has taken this approach to the next level by introducing more autonomy and keeping things more transparent and relatable. In Web3, computers are heavily involved in interpreting information on a human level.

Web3 has many additional attributes that distinguish it from Web 2.0 — it’s verifiable, self-governing, permissionless, distributed, stateless, and has built-in payment systems (cryptocurrency).

This lack of transparency and verification led to Web 2.0 containing too much content and information, most of which isn’t helpful for general users. Its security is also sub-par, which is why there are too many hackers today and a marked increase in identity theft and other cybercrimes.

Any application built on Web3 would be developed and owned by the users as they help create and maintain the app, earning their stake along the way. This is just how Bitcoin operates, as miners of the currency earn Bitcoins when they facilitate transactions through computing operations.

The apps on Web3 are called “dApps,” which is short for “decentralized applications.” You can expect to hear this term more often in the near future.

An effective Web3 developer is one who is familiar with the concept of Web3, is proficient in the relevant programming languages, and has the right tech stack to back their development work.

What Tech Stack Do Web3 Developers Use: Skills and Tools

The tech stack, or developer stack, refers to the technology or tools the developer uses and excels at. A good example is the MEAN stack, which is comprised of MongoDB, Express.js, AngularJS/Angular, and Node.js.

For Web3, there’s a specific tech stack that the developer you’re hiring must use.

Web3 SDKs/dApps

The Web3 SDKs, or libraries, are essential for building any dApp. These libraries support the interaction with a blockchain, such as Ethereum, and conduct transactions.

The most important of these SDKs are, and ethers.js. These are also linked with smart contracts, which are explained further below.

Cryptocurrency Wallets

If you’ve ever dabbled with cryptocurrency, you probably already know what a crypto wallet is. It holds your cryptocurrency and can be either a digital or hardware wallet. For Web3 applications, a wallet is required to facilitate transactions.

There’s a fee for the writing operations on the blockchain, which must be drawn from the wallet. For Web3, the developer can create an ETH (ethers) wallet using any of the common languages, such as Python, JavaScript, or Ruby. Alternatively, developers can use an existing wallet platform like MetaMask.


Nodes make up the blockchain and retain a copy of it. These are also called Web3 providers for this reason, as the application’s connectivity with the blockchain hinges on these nodes. Without these nodes, dApp cannot communicate with the smart contracts.

The most commonly used provider is QuickNode, which provides a global network of nodes powered by speedy operations.

Smart Contracts

In the crypto world, smart contracts are pieces of code that live on the blockchain. Written in Solidity, these cannot be altered or mutated. This code runs when the conditions for it to run are met.

This automates the workflow when the participants of the blockchain confirm an outcome. These smart contracts (pioneered by Ethereum) also helped give Ethereum the edge over Bitcoin in terms of transaction speed.

Web3 Developer Salaries

The average yearly salaries for Web3 developers can vary greatly depending on what you’re hiring them for. Here’s an overview of the most popular Web3 expert roles and their salaries.

Blockchain Developer

According to ZipRecruiter, the average yearly salary for a blockchain developer is $154,550 or $74 per hour. Note that this average is mostly drawn from larger companies. If you add smaller companies and startups into the mix, the average yearly salary drops to $80,000 per year.

Since the term “blockchain developer” is a broad descriptor, the associated salaries tend to vary. In general, there are two types of blockchain developers: blockchain software developers and core blockchain developers.

  1. Blockchain software developers: Blockchain software developers are responsible for creating applications based on blockchain protocol and architecture. One of their main duties is to create smart contracts, which are programs stored on a blockchain that automatically run when conditions are met. Small contracts are usually used to automate workflows and agreement execution so every participant will immediately know the outcome.

    They also create decentralized applications (dApps) that run on the blockchain, making them comparable with web developers, who use web architects’ design and protocol to create web applications. Additionally, these software developers are responsible for the front-end and back-end development of dApps and supervising the stack that runs them.
  2. Core blockchain developers: These blockchain developers are responsible for creating the architecture, design, and security of the blockchain system. They also:
  • Design the blockchain protocols
  • Design security patterns and consensus protocols for the network
  • Supervise the entire blockchain network

Despite their differences, both types of blockchain developers require a similar skill set. Here are the main blockchain developer hard skills you should look for when hiring a blockchain developer for your team:

  1. Cryptography: Cryptography is the study of blockchain protocols that prevent unauthorised and unwanted parties from accessing your data. A popular concept in cryptography is public-key cryptography, which forms the backbone of cryptocurrency transactions. Another hot topic is cryptographic hashing, which transforms cleartext passwords into enciphered text for storage. This slows down threat actors since they’ll have to decipher these hash values if they want to exploit the passwords.
  2. Data structures: Every blockchain developer needs to have extensive knowledge of data structures. This is because blockchain networks consist of data structures.
  3. Blockchain architecture: Blockchain developers need to know what ledgers are, how smart contracts work, and what consensus is. They should also be familiar with all four types of blockchain architecture: consortium, private, public, and hybrid.
  4. Web development: Blockchain developers should also know how to develop and create web apps, particularly if they’re blockchain software developers.
  5. A variety of programming languages: Finally, your blockchain developer should have experience with at three or more of the following programming languages:
  • Java
  • Python
  • C++
  • C#
  • PHP
  • JavaScript
  • Go
  • Simplicity
  • SQL

Like the rest of the roles on this list, blockchain developers need the following soft skills:

  • Commitment to and passion for the Web3 landscape
  • Interest in learning more about blockchain technologies
  • Client and project management skills
  • The ability to meet deadlines ahead of time
  • The ability to work in multi-disciplinary teams

Solidity Developer

The average base salary for a Solidity developer is $127,500 per year. Remote Solidity developers can earn up to an average of $145,000 per year, depending on which company they’re working for.

Solidity developers use the Solidity language to create and deploy smart contracts on Ethereum-based apps. The syntax of Solidity is similar to C and Javascript, so developers who already know those languages can quickly learn Solidity. Compared to other languages, Solidity offers multiple benefits, such as:

  • Statically typed programming
  • Accessibility to JavaScript debuggers, infrastructures, and other tools
  • Preciseness

With Solidity, developers can craft applications with self-enforcing business logic in smart contracts, creating a non-repeatable record of transactions. Solidity also supports libraries, a complex user-defined type, and inheritance. Thus, it’s a good choice for creating contracts for crowdfunding, voting, multi-signature wallets, and blind auctions.

Solidity developers are usually responsible for:

  • Integrating Solidity code across various platforms
  • Managing the full lifecycle of blockchain development
  • Ensuring blockchain integration with existing applications
  • Building smart contracts and ensuring that all timelines and expectations are met for finished smart contracts
  • Reviewing smart contracts for security and functionality
  • Supervising web services that use blockchain technology
  • Collaborating with multidisciplinary teams and product managers to discover new ideas for smart contract development
  • Assessing technical reviews of proposed solutions
  • Analyzing usage and transaction statistics to pinpoint and prioritize areas for improvement

Besides having a deep knowledge of Solidity and blockchains, Solidity developers should also have the following hard skills:

  • Blockchain technology, especially Ethereum blockchain
  • Strong background in Javascript, C, C++
  • Knowledge of AngularJS, React JS, and Ember JS
  • Portfolio experience with Ethereum testnet and mainnet
  • CSS/HTML/JS/React for application binary interface (ABI) integration
  • Experience with RESTful APIs
  • Experience with staking protocol implementation for liquidity pair and single-token staking
  • Familiar with different ways to deploy smart contracts, such as Remix, Truffle suite, and Hardhat
  • Experienced in staking implementing and test-driven development (TDD)
  • Knowledge of libraries, data structures, blockchain architecture, web development, and smart contracts

Smart Contract Developer

According to Glassdoor, the average annual salary of a smart contract developer in San Francisco, CA, is $94,674 with an average additional cash compensation of $20,950.

As their name suggests, smart contract developers are responsible for developing smart contracts for blockchain platforms. They use various programming languages, such as Solidity and Vyper, to create smart contracts, which, as we covered above, are blockchain programs that automatically run when conditions are met.

Image Source – Revelo

Unlike blockchain software developers who create dApps as well as smart contracts, smart contract developers are only responsible for designing and building smart contracts architecture and related tasks. As such, they have fewer responsibilities and lower salaries.

Here’s what they’re typically responsible for:

  • Designing, building, and deploying smart contracts architecture, yield pools, incentive structures, and strategies
  • Working with smart contract auditors and the rest of your IT team to implement fixes
  • Create, implement, and test smart contract additions and upgrades
  • Explore and research smart contract design implications

Most companies require smart contract developers to have the following hard skills:

  • Over four years of full-stack web development (client-facing apps and APIs)
  • Programming languages such as Solidity, NodeJS, and JavaScript
  • Cryptography
  • Experience in creating, developing, deploying, and testing smart contracts for all four blockchain architectural types
  • Experience with patterns that will make their Solidity code more readable and improve performance, such as:
  1. Oracles
  2. Pull over Push
  3. Eternal Storage
  4. Tight Variable Packing
  5. Guard Check
  6. Emergency Stop
  • The ability to write secure code that prevents threat actors from taking over contracts
  • Optimization of smart contracts
  • User experience (UX)

Rust Developer

There’s a lot of variation in the salaries of Rust developers.

According to ZipRecruiter, the average Rust developer earns $91,709 per year or $44 per hour. However, in certain major cities, the average salary of Rust developers is higher. For instance, the annual average salary of a rust developer in San Francisco, CA, is $106,131 with an average additional cash compensation of $11,867.

Rust developers are responsible for coding and developing web browsers, blockchain platforms and projects, servers and systems software, and operating systems in the Rust programming language. They may also be responsible for testing, debugging, and ensuring the security and safety of the systems, software, and platforms they develop.

Additional duties may include:

  • Collaborating with customers, management, and relevant departments to pinpoint end-user specifications and requirements
  • Analyzing user feedback to boost software performance
  • Creating technical documentation

Like Solidity, Rust is a popular language that has a wide range of Web3 applications. It’s particularly popular due to its use in the Solana blockchain, a potential competitor to Ethereum as the leading platform for dApps. As of March 2022, Solana is currently ranked ninth in market value on CoinMarketCap, making it the highest-ranked blockchain platform that uses Rust.

Most companies require Rust developers to have the following skills:

  • C++, since the Rust language is similar to it
  • Other programming languages such as Golang, Python, Java, Node.js, and React.js
  • Knowledge and experience with secure coding practices
  • Experience with network programming skills and multi-threaded programming
  • Familiarity with solana-web3.js, Solana’s official SDK (Rust developers use this SDK to develop Solana dApps)
  • The ability to create and launch Programs, which are the Solana equivalent of smart contracts
  • Experience with specific operating systems such as Android or Linux
  • Experience with certain databases, such as MongoDB and Apache CouchDB

Many organisations also prefer to hire Rust programmers who have at least three to five years of Rust coding experience since it’s a difficult language to master.

According to the Rust Survey of 2019, most Rust programmers rated their expertise as 7 out of 10 or below, even though over 68% of them wrote Rust code weekly. Additionally, 22% of Rust users indicated that they didn’t feel productive while coding Rust and the steep learning curve was the second most common reason for not using Rust on some projects.

As such, it’s important to get a good idea of how familiar and comfortable your potential hire is at Rust. Give them a few test assignments and make sure that they know how to create, test, and debug the programs and apps you want them to create.

Where to Find Web3 Developers

Whether you’re looking to hire Web3 developers for a long-term project or a small gig, knowing where you can find the best talent for this specific set of skills can substantially cut down your search time.

Web3, like cryptocurrency in its early days, is driving impressive innovation. It’s an excellent opportunity to be a part of the blockchain ecosystem and help formulate the future of the web.

Unless you live in a tech hub where you can find talent locally, it’s probably easiest to hire remote developers. Here are the best places to find these developers and Web3 engineers:

Crypto Job Boards

Even while talking about something as cutting edge as Web3, you may find the age-old approach of searching job boards to be quite convenient. However, you’ll want to choose a job board that’s known for harboring blockchain and crypto developers.

There are several recruitment websites that focus solely on crypto-related jobs. You can increase your chances of finding the right person by posting the position on more than one of these platforms.

Some of the most popular online crypto job boards include Crypto Jobs ListCryptoJobs, and Angel. Other more general job sites include Indeed and


LinkedIn is another online job board, but it’s also a social media platform. Many startups begin their talent scouting here.

Not only do you have the opportunity to post Web3 development jobs on LinkedIn, but you can also search for professionals with experience by viewing the profiles of prospective employees. Profiles present workers’ skills, experience, and education, and if you like someone, you can communicate with them directly on the website or app.

While LinkedIn is an excellent place to find a developer, it also provides a great platform for promoting your business, especially if you’re looking for financing. It offers opportunities to show off the talent you hire as well, to make your venture appear even more valuable.

Talent Marketplaces

Online talent marketplaces are another viable option when searching for Web3 developers. These usually have both remote workers and freelancers, so you’ll first need to figure out exactly the kind of worker you need.

Do you want a permanent member of the team? Do you want a contractual freelancer? These are serious considerations. For example, for long-haul collaboration, you’d likely want the developer to be an employee of the company.

There’s nothing wrong with going with a freelance developer, provided this kind of relationship meets your needs and you can find someone suitable. But if you’re looking to embed developers in your team and hire them permanently, Revelo is an excellent place to start. You’ll be connected with top-notch remote talent specializing in Web3 engineering or development, or whatever technology you need to grow your business.

One of the most significant benefits of using Revelo is that the developers are pre-screened, so the skills and experience they list on their profile are what you’ll get. Therefore, there’s no need to confirm their experience — you can just move along with the interviewing process.

How to Hire Web3 Developers

You probably don’t want to spend endless hours reviewing resume after resume and conducting dozens of interviews. At the same time, you also don’t want to miss out on good talent by overlooking their applications.

To help you pick out the best from the rest, here are some examples of job postings and some guidelines for the interviews themselves.

If you find hiring daunting, don’t worry — hiring developers doesn’t require the formal interviews, group discussions, or IQ tests that many big corporations use. If you’re all for decentralization anyway, you might as well do things a little differently than more centralized corporations.  

Web3 Developer Job Post Example

The first thing you need to nail is the job post itself. Whether you choose to go with a job board, LinkedIn, or a talent marketplace, you’ll need to define the position you’re offering.

This is important because, believe it or not, many recruiters and contractors end up using the wrong terms in their posts or adding too much detail. This can cause candidates to overlook the most important requirements of the position. In these cases, you’ll end up with irrelevant resumes and often too many of them to sift through.

When you’re looking to hire Web3 developers, the post should be direct. It should address that you’re looking for a blockchain developer who specialises in Web3 development and has the right tech stack to support it.

Ideally, you would want people with experience working with blockchain to apply. So, make a list of the relevant keywords to put in your post. Those keywords will also help the post rank better on search engines, so anyone who types those keywords will see your job posting.

To help you write an immaculate job post to hire Web3 programmer, here is an example:

“We are looking for a passionate and experienced Web3 developer to help us build our project XYZ.

Our ideal candidate is someone with experience developing blockchain-based applications, especially those for Web3 (dApps). They should be aware of and use the latest technologies in crypto, blockchain, and Web3 development. With collaborative energy and willingness to learn, the right candidate will readily communicate with and assist other team members on the project.

Necessary Qualifications:

  • Experience with blockchain development
  • Experience with Solidity and dApp development
  • Basic knowledge of front-end development of dApps to bridge the gap between the complex blockchain and usable Web 2.0–based interface
  • Ability to work remotely and collaborate with the team when necessary


  • Help create scalable applications with Ethereum blockchain
  • Analyse and solve problems in the development phase
  • Communicate and collaborate with back-end and front-end teams
  • Develop and optimise smart contracts
  • Help document the development process of the blockchain and dApps
  • Optimise development and implementation
  • Adopt best practices for Web3 and blockchain development”

You can follow this layout or create your own based on this sample structure:

Begin by briefly introducing your company or the idea of the project without giving too much away, especially if you’ve come up with a new idea.

Then, talk about what the ideal candidate should have, including the desired skills and qualifications. Don’t be too general with these but try to be straightforward. Keep in mind that Web3 is relatively new, so asking for 5 or 10 years of specific experience may be unreasonable and limit who applies. This could cause you to miss out on exceptionally qualified candidates.

Consider adding a pay rate or range in the job posting. This transparency will ensure that neither you nor the candidates waste time with interviews or application materials if your expectations are drastically different.

Lastly, list the responsibilities that the developer will have. Include both technical and non-technical responsibilities that you’ll expect of a new hire.

Remember that a clearer job description will attract more relevant applicants.

Web3 Developer Interviews

Once you have shortlisted the candidates, you can begin setting up interviews. You already established during your initial review that they meet the requirements you defined in the job post. Now, it’s time to get to know them a bit better.

You’ll most likely be conducting the interview remotely via a web meeting tool, like Zoom.

It’s always a good idea to formulate your interview questions beforehand. You should write down your most significant concerns with hiring Web3 engineers and keep each candidate’s resume handy either in paper format or on your computer screen.

Ask them how they plan on working remotely, especially if they are located in a different region with a significant time zone difference. Discuss the communication tools and methods of your team and whether they have any experience with those.

Make sure to formulate these discussions and concerns into a set of questions and create a smooth flow. For example, consider dividing the interview into technical and non-technical sections. However, it’s not necessary to stick to your script. If you think of something during the interview, you can go ahead and ask and come back to your pre-written questions after.

Lastly, discuss their salary or pay expectations. Do they prefer to be paid hourly, annually, or by the project?

Here are some sample questions you can use in your interviews:

  • How do you think Web3 is different from the previous versions of the web?
  • What blockchain projects have you been part of? What was your role?
  • What Web3 development tools and technology have you used before?
  • What coding languages are you experienced in?
  • How do you respond to feedback from other team members?
  • What testing methods do you use for your code?
  • What is your preferred mode of communication?

Don’t forget to keep the mood light and friendly!

Web3 Coding Challenges

No matter how well the interview went and how experienced the candidate claims to be, it all comes down to their skill.

To measure and confirm their level of knowledge and experience in Web3 development, you should conduct several small coding challenges. These can be presented to the candidates in written form or as video presentations to explain the purpose of the assignment. The task shouldn’t be longer than an hour unless you plan to pay them for their time.

If you’re hiring a developer to carry out different coding tasks, you should create different coding challenges, each dealing with a specific need of your project — for example, creating nodes, writing smart contracts, or developing the front end of a Web3 application.

Another popular approach to coding challenges is pair programming. In these tests, two developers work together on a problem, either in person or remotely. This is a great way to test their technical skills and their team and communication skills. The code wouldn’t be written by both of the developers, however. One would formulate the code or define the approach, while the other would actually write it. You can reverse the roles for a second test.

Here are some tips for developing coding challenges:

  • Utilise problems related to your project. You want to see the developers working in the context of your application. You should take a problem related to your project and present it as a challenge to see how the candidate might benefit your team.
  • Focus on the process, not the result. When examining the coding challenge results, don’t just look at whether they solved the problem. Even if they didn’t quite find the solution, their results can help you get to know how they work and whether they have the potential to learn more.
  • Use the same challenge. For a single job posting, use the same coding challenge to see how different candidates compare. However, don’t reuse the test once you’ve hired someone successfully.
  • Create from scratch. It’s best to create the challenge yourself, using a real problem related to your project. Pre-designed coding tests may not provide the best outcome, and many times the solutions have been published online, which defeats the purpose of testing. If you’re not a developer yourself, consider asking your current developers, especially those responsible for testing, to create these tests for you.


Hiring Web3 developers is not difficult if you search in the right places, conduct the interviews effectively, and design a solid coding test. Even if you believe a candidate is not seasoned, you can always train them. However, they should have the drive to learn more.

Revelo can solve your talent hunting issues by presenting some of the best developers from Latin America to become an integral part of your team and take your Web3 project to the next level. Contact Revelo and get matched with vetted developers within 3 days.


How To Make It As A New Blockchain Developer

Crypto, Blockchain and Web3 are buzzwords these days and while you might already hold some Bitcoin on Coinbase or Binance, you might also be wondering how you can move your career into this new industry as a developer.

Good blockchain developers are highly sought after and becoming an expert in these new technologies can bring you an exceptionally high income as well as job security.

It’s easy to google “How to become a blockchain developer” to find out what technical skills you will need and what programming languages you will have to learn. You will find lots of helpful information e.g. here and here

According to the latest State of the Developer Nation Report, blockchain applications, cryptocurrencies, and NFTs have the highest share of developers learning about them.

Blockchain developer - graph to show that blockchain apps, cryptocurrencies, and NFTs have the highest share of developers learning about them.

More specifically with regards to Cryptocurrencies, out of a sample of 13,939 developers, 50% stated they are interested in them, 34% said they are learning about them while 16 % have already adopted the technology. 

But what actually is Crypto, Blockchain and Web3? And – once you have the skills – how are you going to get your foot in the door and create long-term success? 

Ecosystem Education

If you are a complete newbie, I’d suggest educating yourself on the origins and philosophy of bitcoin and blockchain first, as well as the evolution of Web3. There are some great free courses that will give you a solid foundation and might help you find a niche to focus your efforts on. for example is an engaging 6-week course that will give you a good high-level overview of the Web3 ecosystem. It is very welcoming to participants from all walks of life and underrepresented backgrounds.

The free MOOC on Digital Currencies by the University of Nicosia, which is taught by prominent bitcoin educator Andreas Antonopoulos, is a great place to start if you really want to understand how bitcoin works and why it is here. 

Crypto Job Boards

There are a number of job boards dedicated to Web3, but simply submitting your CV has never been the best way to go about this, in my opinion. Nevertheless, it’s helpful to know about them, so here are a few you can check out: 

  6. AngelList
  9. Braintrust

Building Your Network

The best positions are often filled before they make it to a job board, since candidates are being hired from within the network of the recruiter or the organization hiring. That’s why it is important to connect with others in the space. If the term “networking” makes you cringe or sounds like a chore to you, here are some easy ways to go about that: 

  1. Attend crypto meet-ups or blockchain conferences to learn about all the things that are being built in this space. You’ll be amazed what some teams are creating out there and you will surely find something that excites you, or sparks your own ideas.
  2. Join the online communities of the projects that you are most interested in. Most of them have a Discord community, which you can find on their websites. Start chatting with other developers in there who may be looking for team members and look out for vacancies in their announcement channels.

Start using some DApps (Decentralized Applications) – whether it’s a simple wallet to send and receive cryptocurrency or blogging platforms like Hive that allow you to earn cryptocurrency for your content. If you’re a gamer, check out games like Splinterlands or Axie Infinity. It’s easiest to start with something you already know. 

No matter what your background is, begin using Web3 apps so you gain personal experience as a user. This will help you learn about their challenges or short-comings and you can begin thinking about solutions for them – whether it is UX design or their token economy. You could begin contributing to their improvements, or you could join (or create) a team that will build something better.

Many people get hired by companies because they have proven their knowledge, engagement and contribution in their communities already.

Web3 projects don’t hire staff, they recruit members.

This goes not only for other stakeholders like customers, users, block producers and investors. Crypto projects are win-win-win communities. All stakeholders are equally important in their contributions to help the project succeed.

4. Join Hackathons and coding bootcamps. Stay in touch with the people you meet there. They might all end up in different projects, so this is a great way to build your professional network. 

5. Start creating content! Whether it’s your own blog, a Hive account, or your Github account. Begin creating a public track record of your thoughts or technical contributions to the space.

“Don’t trust. Verify.” This famous crypto slogan applies not only to the blockchain but also to you. Creating a verifiable track record is worth so much more than a fancy CV. Your track record will speak for itself and send projects your way, rather than you having to look for them. Project teams don’t care about your CV, they care about your proven experience and contributions to the industry.

6. Join a DAO and see how you can begin contributing. DAO’s – Decentralised Autonomous Organisations – are an essential part of the Web3 space and might just become the way we will all work and organize ourselves in the future. You can submit proposals and get your contributions funded by the DAO’s treasury, if your fellow DAO members vote for it. Check out LobsterDAO or HerDAO (for womxn developers) to get started. 

7. Check out Gitcoin where projects post small tasks that you can earn cryptocurrency for. It will help you build a track record, too.

Community Is The New Currency

Everything in the crypto and Web3 space revolves around communities. There is very little of the top down structures you may be used to. The value of crypto tokens comes from their community of developers and users, and you will also end up choosing your project by the community it already has, or the potential it has to create one. (Are they building something that you think will be adopted by a large number of people? Is it going to make a difference to anyone?)

Make Everyone Want To Work With You

You may be highly intelligent, but intellectual intelligence is not the only ingredient for success. You can be a genius, but it will be of little use if nobody likes working with you. 

Emotional intelligence is a highly important part in communities. Web3 is all about “we” rather than “me”. People like to surround themselves with people they like and get along with. Even though everyone can code from their bedroom or a hammock on a remote island these days – be kind, be agreeable, be generous in your communication with others. Online and offline. Be a team player. Be someone that CEO’s, investors and HR or customer service staff enjoy working with. 

Making interpersonal communication skills just as important as your technical skills will help you become a highly valued and sought-after contributor and create lasting success!

Already a developer interested in Blockchain? Take the Developer Nation survey, share your views on new technologies, tools or platforms for 2023 and shape the future of the Developer Ecosystem. You will get a virtual goody bag with free resources, plus a chance to win an iPhone 13, a Samsung Galaxy S22, Amazon vouchers and more. Start here

Anja Schuetz is an Operations Management Consultant who has worked for several crypto wallets and blockchain projects. She also mentors first-time crypto investors and helps newcomers move their careers into Web3. Learn more about Anja at